No better commentary on Psalm 110:4 can be found than the inspired one found in Hebrews 4:14-10:18. Here, the Spirit guided penman makes the following points about Jesus’ high priesthood:
- Like the Levitical high priesthood of the Old Testament (Hebrews 5:1), Jesus is our high priest because He was appointed/called by God to so function (Hebrews 5:5, 10).
- Just as God swore to Abraham that He would bless Him (Hebrews 6:13-14), so “The Lord has sworn and will not relent” that Jesus would become a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 6:20).
- The uniqueness of Melchizedek is that he was both a king of righteousness and of peace and a priest of the Most High God (Hebrews 7:1-2). This was impossible under the Law of Moses because the kings came from the descendants of David (of the tribe of Judah) and the High Priests came from the descendants of Aaron (of the tribe of Levi). For Jesus to be both king and priest there had to be a change of the law; a new covenant—the one prophesied by Jeremiah (Hebrews 8:7-13)—had to be given (Hebrews 7:12-17).
“Seeing then that we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need” (Hebrews 4:14-16).